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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Submitting your manuscript: 

Information about the online submission process


Instructions for Authors  

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General Information

The ASEAN Journal of Radiology (ASEAN-JR), an official journal of ASEAN association of Radiology (AAR), publishes original articles pertaining to the clinical imaging, therapy, and basic science of the radiology, radiation therapy, medical physics and related educational, socioeconomic and medicolegal issue in ASEAN regions and worldwide. The content of the ASEAN-JR is determined by the Editors.

Types of articles the ASEAN-JR will consider for publication include Original Research, Case Reports, Technical Innovation, Letters to the Editor, and special papers including Review Articles, Pictorial Essay, Classic Case, Perspective, and ASEAN Movement in Radiology.

Submitted manuscripts must not contain previously published material or material under consideration for publication elsewhere unless specific permission is obtained. Accepted manuscripts become the property of the ASEAN-JR and may not be republished without its consent. Manuscripts will undergo peer review, and an ASEAN-JR Editor will then make a decision relative to publication.

It is the Corresponding Author’s responsibility to ensure that he/she has the correct authors’ names, affiliations, addresses and author sequence when the final corrected proofs are submitted. Please keep in mind that corrections are no longer possible after online first publication.

Types of Papers

1. Original Article

This is the most important type of article because it provides new information based on original research. An original report is new because of the imaging findings in a disease or syndrome; it is new because of unique interventional processes; it is new because it expresses new manifestations or complications or follow-up of a disease or disorder. Original reports can be prospective or retrospective. They can be clinical or basic research.

Format:  Structured Abstract (words limit 250) which should be divided into the following sections:

  • Background – reason for study
  • Objective – give hypothesis being tested
  • Materials and methods – brief but specific to number of subjects, how collected, and what was done
  • Results – the findings of the study with statistical significance
  • Conclusion 

Body of paper:

  • Introduction: Briefly describe the objective of the investigation and explain why it is important.
  • Materials and methods: Describe the research plan, the materials (or subjects), and the methods used, in that order.
  • Explain in detail how disease was confirmed and how subjectivity in observations was controlled.
  • Results: Present results in a clear, logical sequence. If tables are used, do not duplicate tabular data in text, but do describe important trends and points.
  • Discussion: Describe the limitations of the research plan, materials (or subjects), and methods, considering both the objective and the outcome of the study. When results differ from those of previous investigators, explain the discrepancy.
  • Conclusion: In one or two sentences, present the message to be remembered when all else is forgotten. Describe the conclusion of the study, based solely on the data provided in the body of the report. Conclusions must relate directly to the objective of the paper as defined in the title and first paragraph of the report. Do not use abbreviations. Do not use reference citations.

2. Perspectives

A brief article stating the author’s personal opinion on a contentious or current topic or situation. Minimum illustrations. Author may review articles to align his/her viewpoint.

Format: No abstract Sections divided by topic headings

3. Technical Innovation

A short explanation of a certain method or procedure, alteration of a method, or new equipment of interest to radiologists. References limited to 8

Format: Abstract in paragraph form of less than 125 words A brief, one–paragraph introduction giving the general background Body of report:

  • Introduction with general background.
  • Description of new technical innovation.
  • Discussion.

4. Case Report/ Classic Case

Case report: Short discussion of a single case with unique features not previously described. A case report must be unique by imaging findings, a unique manifestation of a disease or disorder or by making unique use of imaging to reveal a disease or disorder. Images of a second case may supplement either the discussion or the illustration of findings, but a single case must remain the concentration.

Classic case: The image needs to be a classic, and should illustrate findings that are typical of a rare or uncommon disease process or condition. References limited to 8. Authors limited to 5 who are affiliated with the institution that managed the case.

Abstract in paragraph form (<125 words) and includes:

  • Reason to publish
  • What was unique or classic
  • Ramification of this report
    Abstract may not be necessary for Classic Case.

Body of paper:

  1. Introduction – is a brief paragraph giving general background and specific interest of the case.
  2. Case summary – Stress should be on the radiologic aspects; clinical information must be limited to that which provides a background for the radiologist.
  3. Discussion – Concise and focuses on the specific message and significance of radiologic methods. A review of the literature is not appropriate.

5. Review Article

Scholarly examination of recent developments on a certain topic as reported in the literature. No new information is described but personal experiences may be expressed. Reviews are not encyclopedic like a chapter in a textbook; rather, they include only the highlights.

Abstract in paragraph form introducing scope of paper. Body of report:

  1. Introduction – background and scope
  2. Headings – used to organize text

6. Pictorial Essay

This is a teaching exercise with the message in the figures and their legends. There may be as many as 30 figure parts; however, no new information is included. The value of the paper turns on the quality of the illustrations as well as the timeliness and utility of the message.

Abstract in paragraph form defining the goals of the essay. Body:

  • Introduction
  • Headings – used to organize text

7. Letter to the Editor and Reply

Letters to the editor and replies should offer objective analysis of published articles. Letters may also discuss matters of general interest. Material being submitted or published elsewhere should not be repeated in letters.

The title included on the letter should be short and relevant. The title for a reply is simply ‘‘Reply.’’ Do not use abbreviations in the title, letter, or reply.

8. ASEAN Movement in Radiology

A short article reporting historical mile stone that shape present situation regarding radiology or radiological societies in ASEAN countries or current event/ situation that may shape future direction.

No abstract Sections divided by topic headings 

Summary of Format for Articles

Type of Articles Maximum words Abstract
Original Articles 4,500 Structured
Perspective/ASEAN Movement 1,500 None
Technical Innovation 1,500 Paragraph
Case Report/Classic Case 1,500 Paragraph
Review 5,000 Paragraph
Pictorial Essay 2,250 Paragraph
Letter to the Editor 500 None

Image Quality Images should be exported directly from a PACS system or high-quality film scans and should be provided at 92 dpi and at least 800 pixels in height. No pictures of printed films will be accepted. Cropped screen captures should be avoided.

Please email to

Editor in Chief  Email: editorinchief@radiologythailand.org
Assistant Editor in Chief Email: assistanteditor@radiologythailand.org

Author Responsibilities

Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results which could damage the trust in the journal, the professionalism of scientific authorship, and ultimately the entire scientific endeavour. Maintaining integrity of the research and its presentation can be achieved by following the rules of good scientific practice, which include:

The manuscript has not been submitted to more than one journal for simultaneous consideration.

The manuscript has not been published previously (partly or in full), unless the new work concerns an expansion of previous work (please provide transparency on the re-use of material to avoid the hint of text-recycling (“self-plagiarism”).

A single study is not split up into several parts to increase the quantity of submissions and submitted to various journals or to one journal over time (e.g. “salami-publishing”).

No data have been fabricated or manipulated (including images) to support your conclusions No data, text, or theories by others are presented as if they were the author’s own (“plagiarism”). Proper acknowledgements to other works must be given (this includes material that is closely copied (near verbatim), summarized and/or paraphrased), quotation marks are used for verbatim copying of material, and permissions are secured for material that is copyrighted.

All authors should read the following instructions before submitting a manuscript to assure timely handling and review of their material. Authors should strive to present their manuscripts in a clear and logical manner. Authors are responsible for all statements made in the text.

We strongly encourage authors for whom English is not their native language to seek assistance from a colleague experienced in medical terminology and translation or a technical manuscript editor/service to ensure that the words used both accurately and clearly convey the intended meaning. Failure to do so may compromise the review of your manuscript.

Because understanding and correctly displaying non-English names can be complicated, we urge our authors to review the Title Page instructions below carefully.

We recommends that authors have a statistician verify that all of their methods are valid and their interpretation of data is accurate.

Important note: the journal may use software to screen for plagiarism.

Consent to submit has been received explicitly from all co-authors, as well as from the responsible authorities - tacitly or explicitly - at the institute/organization where the work has been carried out, before the work is submitted.

Authors whose names appear on the submission have contributed sufficiently to the scientific work and therefore share collective responsibility and accountability for the results.

Authors are strongly advised to ensure the correct author group, corresponding author, and order of authors at submission. Changes of authorship or in the order of authors are not accepted after acceptance of a manuscript.

Adding and/or deleting authors and/or changing the order of authors at revision stage may be justifiably warranted. A letter must accompany the revised manuscript to explain the reason for the change(s) and the contribution role(s) of the added and/or deleted author(s). Further documentation may be required to support your request.

Requests for addition or removal of authors as a result of authorship disputes after acceptance are honored after formal notification by the institute or independent body and/or when there is agreement between all authors.

Upon request authors should be prepared to send relevant documentation or data in order to verify the validity of the results. This could be in the form of raw data, samples, records, etc. Sensitive information in the form of confidential proprietary data is excluded. If the article is still under consideration, it may be rejected and returned to the author.

If the article has already been published online, depending on the nature and severity of the infraction, either an erratum will be placed with the article or in severe cases complete retraction of the article will occur. The reason must be given in the published erratum or retraction note. Please note that retraction means that the paper is maintained on the platform, watermarked “retracted” and explanation for the retraction is provided in a note linked to the watermarked article.

The author’s institution may be informed.

Duplicate/Redundant Publication

Should any member of the Editorial Board become aware of the possibility of redundant/ duplicate publication, the Editor-in-Chief will suspend it until final determination is made. A determination of redundant/duplicate publication will result in immediate rejection of the article and notification of the Editor(s) of other journals involved.

Editorial Process

This journal provide 4 areas of editorial services: language editing, statistical editing, content editing, and complete reference-citation check in 8 steps:

Step Services to Author sServices providers
I Manuscript submitted Editor
II Language editing/ A reference-citation check Language Consultant/Bibliographer
III First revission to ensure that all information remains correct after language editing Editor
IV Statictical editing Statistical consultant
V Content editing Two reviewers
VI Second revision Editor
VII Manuscript Accepted/Rejected Editor/Editorial board
VIII Manuscript Published Editorial office

Manuscript Submission

Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not b held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

The ASEAN-JR uses an electronic submission and review process to promote expeditious peer review. Manuscripts should be submitted electronically via the web site. Questions about manuscripts under consideration may be addressed to:

Editor in Chief Email: editorinchief@radiologythailand.org
Assistant Editor in Chief Email: assistanteditor@radiologythailand.org

Disclosure Forms and Copyright Agreements

All authors listed on the manuscript must complete both the electronic copyright agreement (in the case of acceptance)

Title Page

The title page should include:

  • The name(s) of the author(s)
  • A concise and informative title
  • The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
  • The e-mail address, and telephone number(s) of the corresponding author


Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.


Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Scientific Style

Please always use internationally accepted signs and symbols for units (SI units).


Citation Reference citations in the text should be identified by numbers in square brackets. Some examples

  1. Negotiation research spans many disciplines [3]
  2. This result was later contradicted by Becker and Seligman [5].
  3. This effect has been widely studied [1-3, 7].

Reference list

The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.

General rules

  • The recommended style for references is based on The Vancouver Style (The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals citation format).
  • Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text.
  • Include up to 6 authors (If more than six, provide the names of the first six authors followed by et al.
  • If there is no author, start with the title.
  • If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the issue number may be omitted.
  • Periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers) should have abbreviated titles as in PubMed.

 Examples of references:

1. Standard journal article
List the first six authors followed by et al.

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002;347:284-7.

Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res 2002;935:40-6.

2. Article not in English

Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002;122:785-7. Norwegian.

Optional translation of article title (MEDLINE/PubMed practice): Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002;122:785-7. Norwegian.

3. Article with a Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009 Jan 7;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752.

4. Volume with supplement

Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

5. Issue with supplement

Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology 2002;58(12 Suppl 7): S6-12.

6. Volume with part

Abend SM, Kulish N. The psychoanalytic method from an epistemological viewpoint. Int J Psychoanal 2002;83(Pt 2):491-5.

7. Issue with part

Ahrar K, Madoff DC, Gupta S, Wallace MJ, Price RE, Wright KC. Development of a large animal model for lung tumors. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002;13(9 Pt 1):923-8.

8. Issue with no volume

Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 2002;(401):230-8.

9. No volume or issue

Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction 2002 Jun:1-6.

10. Book
Personal author(s)

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St.Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author

Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

11. Chapter in a book

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

12. Dissertation

Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

13. Patent

Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

14. Conference proceedings

Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

15. Conference paper

Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza’s computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

16. Journal article on the Internet

Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htmArticle

17. Monograph on the Internet [Edited 12 May 2009]

Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/ 10149/improving-palliative-care-for-cancer.

18. Homepage/Web site

eatright.org [Internet]. Chicago: Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics; c2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Available from: http://www.eatright.org/.

19. Part of a homepage/Web site

American Medical Association [Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2016 [cited 2016 Dec 27]. Office of International Medicine; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.ama-assn.org/about/office-international-medicine


  • All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table.
  • Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption.
  • Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Electronic Supplementary Material

Electronic Figure Submission

  • Supply all figures electronically.
  • Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.
  • For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MSOffice files are also acceptable.
  • Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
  • Name your figure files with “Fig” and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Color Art

  • Color art is free of charge for online publication.
  • If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent.
  • If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions.
  • Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).

 Figure Lettering

  • To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts).
  • Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2–3 mm (8–12 pt).
  • Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label.
  • Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc.
  • Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

Figure Numbering

  • All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
  • Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.
  • Figure parts should be denoted by capital letters (A, B, C, etc.).
  • If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, “A1, A2, A3, etc.” Figures in online appendices (Electronic Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions

  • Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  • Figure captions begin with the term Figure in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type.
  • Punctuation is to be placed after the number and at the end of the caption.
  • Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
  • Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size

  • Figures should be submitted separately from the text, if possible.
  • When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width.
  • For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm.
  • For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.


If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.


In order to give people of all abilities and disabilities access to the content of your figures, please make sure that

  • All figures have descriptive captions (blind users could then use a text-to-speech software or a text-to-Braille hardware)
  • Patterns are used instead of or in addition to colors for conveying information (colorblind users would then be able to distinguish the visual elements)
  • Any figure lettering has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

Authors must disclose all relationships or interests that could influence or bias the work. Although an author may not feel there are conflicts, disclosure of relationships and interests affords a more transparent process, leading to an accurate and objective assessment of the work. Awareness of real or perceived conflicts of interests is a perspective to which the readers are entitled and is not meant to imply that a financial relationship with an organization that sponsored the research or compensation for consultancy work is inappropriate. Examples of potential conflicts of interests that are directly or indirectly related to the research may include but are not limited to the following:

  • Research grants from funding agencies (please give the research funder and the grant number)
  • Honoraria for speaking at symposia
  • Financial support for attending symposia
  • Financial support for educational programs
  • Employment or consultation
  • Support from a project sponsor
  • Position on advisory board or board of directors or other type of management relationships
  • Multiple affiliations
  • Financial relationships, for example equity ownership or investment interest
  • Intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights)
  • Holdings of spouse and/or children that may have financial interest in the work

In addition, interests that go beyond financial interests and compensation (non-financial interests) that may be important to readers should be disclosed. These may include but are not limited to personal relationships or competing interests directly or indirectly tied to this research, or professional interests or personal beliefs that may influence your research.

The corresponding author collects the conflict of interest disclosure forms from all authors. In author collaborations where formal agreements for representation allow it, it is sufficient for the corresponding author to sign the disclosure form on behalf of all authors.

The corresponding author will include a summary statement on the title page that is separate from their manuscript, that reflects what is recorded in the potential conflict of interest disclosure form(s).

Please make sure to submit all Conflict of Interest disclosure forms together with the manuscript. See below examples of disclosures:

Funding: This study was funded by X (grant number X).

Conflict of Interest: Author A has received research grants from Company A. Author B has received a speaker honorarium from Company X and owns stock in Company Y. Author C is a member of committee Z.

If no conflict exists, the authors should state:

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

To ensure objectivity and transparency in research and to ensure that accepted principles of ethical and professional conduct have been followed, authors should include information regarding sources of funding, potential conflicts of interest (financial or non-financial), informed consent if the research involved human participants, and a statement on welfare of animals if the research involved animals.

Authors should include the following statements (if applicable) in a separate section entitled “Compliance with Ethical Standards” when submitting a paper:

  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest
  • Research involving Human Participants and/or Animals
  • Informed consent

Please note that standards could vary slightly per journal dependent on their peer review policies (i.e. single or double blind peer review) as well as per journal subject discipline. Before submitting your article check the instructions following this section carefully.

The corresponding author should be prepared to collect documentation of compliance with ethical standards and send if requested during peer review or after publication.

The Editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the above-mentioned guidelines. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned guidelines.

After Acceptance

Upon acceptance of your article you will receive a link to the special Author Query Application at Springer’s web page where you can sign the Copyright Transfer Statement online and indicate whether you wish to order OpenChoice and offprints.

Once the Author Query Application has been completed, your article will be processed and you will receive the proofs.

Copyright transfer

Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher (or grant the Publisher exclusive publication and dissemination rights). This will ensure the widest possible protection and dissemination of information under copyright laws.

Proof reading

The purpose of the proof is to check for typesetting or conversion errors and the completeness and accuracy of the text, tables and figures. Substantial changes in content, e.g., new results, corrected values, title and authorship, are not allowed without the approval of the Editor.

After online publication, further changes can only be made in the form of an Erratum, which will be hyperlinked to the article.

Online First

The article will be published online after receipt of the corrected proofs. This is the official first publication citable with the DOI. After release of the printed version, the paper can also be cited by issue and page numbers.

Privacy Statement

The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.